The Democratic People's Republic of Bulgaria is the northern west neighbour of Turkey and is bordered by Romania from the north, Yugoslavia from the west and Greece from the south. The Danube in the north and the Black Sea in the east constitute the natural borders. The restructuring that started in Russia in 1989 and the policy of opening up to the west spread rapidly in Bulgaria after being dependent upon the Soviet Union economically and ideologically for a long time, and the former dominance of communism greatly lost power. The Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) divides Bulgaria roughly into two geographical regions, the Danube Plate in the north and the Thrace Plateau in the south. In southern Bulgaria, which has a quite mountainous geography, the Rhodope and Rila ranges are located. The highest peak, 2925 meters, of the country and the Balkans, the Musala Mountain, is also here. The Danube River, the most important river in the country, also forms the Romanian-Bulgarian border. Meriç (Maritsa), born within the borders of Bulgaria and forming the border between Greece and Turkey, flows into the Aegean Sea and is one of the most important rivers of Bulgaria. There is a temperate climate. The annual average temperature is 13 °C; the average temperature is 0 °C in January and 22 °C in July. The northern parts are colder than the south.
The Bulgarians are originally the Avar Turks from Central Asia. In the 7th century A.D., they crossed the Danube River and drove the Slav tribes to the south. However, over time they have forgotten their cultures and tongues as they have embraced cultures and languages of the Slav people. In Bulgaria, people are more homogenous than other Balkan nations. 88% of the population is Bulgarian, 8.6% is Turkish, and the rest are Gypsy, Romanian, Greek and Jewish. The Turks live there in cities like Doobruca, Rhodope, and Varna. Administrative oppression and the massacres and robberies of the Bulgarians during the First and Second Balkan wars caused the Turks to be the poorest class. At times, the Turks have been forced to take refuge in Turkey. In 1989 more than 400,000 citizens migrated to Turkey. The official language is Bulgarian, and most of the people know Turkish and Russian too. Three Russian letters were added to the alphabet after the reform in 1945. 90% of the Christian population is Orthodox. 61% of the people live in cities. The buildings in the city were built in the common architectural style of communist countries. After the relations started with the Soviets, the people abandoned their ancestral traditions. Its main cities are Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, and Ruse.
The country where the socialist economy dominated in the state administration until 1990s was in a very severe economic depression during the 1990s due to the loss of the Soviet market after the disintegration of the Eastern Bloc and the capitalist economic conjunctive problems, which reduced the national income by nearly 70%. The Bulgarian economy has been among the fastest-growing economies in the European countries from the end of the 90's. Some statistics about the economy are as follows: National income (2001): $ 16.5 billion; per capita national income: $ 3,500; state debts: $ 10 billion; state revenues (2000): $ 6.4 billion; state expenditures (2000): $ 4.4 billion; inflation (2001): 3%; distribution of economy by sectors (2001): service sector: 57%; industry: 29%; agriculture: 14%. In place of the old system, Bulgaria, which has suffered from the settlement of the new system, did not implement shock economic packages like Russia, Poland and Germany. Instead, it has implemented more conservative economic reform packages. Bulgaria, a NATO member from 2004 and on, became a full member of the EU on January1, 2007.
The literacy rate is relatively higher than other Balkan countries. Education between the ages of 7 and 15 is obligatory. There are universities in Sofia and Plovdiv. Bulgaria, which became a European Union Member in 2007, offers an opportunity to receive higher education at European quality offered in modern conditions. In terms of living costs and tuition fees, Bulgaria has become a more attractive country for higher education in the last few years, offering more budget-friendly conditions than other European countries. Most universities offer English-medium education, so the country gives the opportunity to learn and develop two languages at the same time. You also have the chance to learn Bulgarian during university education. One can also learn Russian as most of the people speak it. Bulgaria is already becoming a more attractive country for especially Turkish students. Being close to Turkey, no university exam requirement, having close conditions and cultures are among the reasons to choose Bulgaria for education. Since the majority of the people can speak Turkish, the adaptation problem that the students have in many countries is less common in Bulgaria. In addition to all these factors, it is becoming economically more attractive for many students who have double citizenship.
Bulgaria Real Estate Purchase and Sale Process
Foreigners can buy apartments, but in the purchase of villas and houses which have land, they can establish a company in Bulgaria and buy real estate properties through this company. A fee of 0.1-3% for title deed tax, 0.1-1.5% for notary expenses, 1% for attorneys' fees, 0.1% for title deed registration fees and 2.5-3% for real estate agency services is needed. You can buy real estate within an average of 17 days and you can apply for residence permit later.